Siegen is a university town in the western region of North Rhine-Westphalia, however it is believed it was formed as far back as the 13th century. Siegen has seen a fair amount of conflict throughout its history; in the 16th century it housed a defensive fort to protect from enemy attack, and in the 17th century there were violent scuffles between the Roman Catholics and the Franciscan monks. During World War II, heavy bombing destroyed almost 80% of the town’s buildings, however a few places of historical importance remain, such as the Oberes Schloss stately home which has a collection of Biedermeier furniture. In terms of culture Siegen boasts the Museum of Modern Art, a gallery of temporary exhibitions called the Haus Oranienstraße, a museum dedicated to the Beatles, and various summer festivals hosting live music, theatre and film. Additionally Siegen has several local symphony orchestras and choral groups.